Diabetes can damage the blood vessels of the retina (diabetic retinopathy), leading to blindness. Diabetes also increases the risk of other serious vision conditions, such as cataracts and glaucoma.
Long term dibetes also sometimes cause foot damage. Nerve damage in the feet or poor blood flow to the feet increases the risk of various foot complications. If left untreated, it cuts and blisters can become serious infections. Severe damage might require toe, foot or even leg amputation.
Medical experts also tell us that diabetes may leave you more susceptible to skin problems including bacterial and fungal infections. Gum infections also may be a concern, if you have a history of poor dental hygiene.
Diabetes may further lead to lower than normal bone mineral density, increasing your risk of osteoporosis. Type 2 diabetes increases the risk of Alzheimer’s disease. The poorer your blood sugar control, the greater the risk appears to be. One theory is that cardiovascular problems caused by diabetes could contribute to dementia by blocking blood flow to the brain or causing strokes. Other possibilities are that too much insulin in the blood leads to brain-damaging inflammation, or lack of insulin in the brain deprives brain cells of glucose.